In response to political pressure to
help Jews under Nazi control, Roosevelt creates the War Refugee
Diary entry by Hans Frank,
Gauleiter of Poland, concerning the fate of 2.5 million Jews
originally under his jurisdiction - "At the present time
we still have in the General Government perhaps 100,000 Jews."
Hungary's 750,000 Jews,
which have so far remained unmolested by the Germans are about
to endure a nightmare of mass deportation to the concentration
camps as Eichmann arrives in Hungary with his "Special
A Jewish inmate, Siegfried
Lederer, escapes from Auschwitz-Birkenau and makes it safely
to Czechoslovakia. He then warns the Elders of the Council at
Theresienstadt about Auschwitz.
Two Jewish inmates escape from Auschwitz-Birkenau
and make it safely to Czechoslovakia. One of them, Rudolf Vrba,
submits a report to the Papal Nuncio in Slovakia which is forwarded
to the Vatican.
First transports of Jews from Athens
to Auschwitz, totalling 5,200 persons.
Rudolf Höss returns
to Auschwitz, ordered by Himmler to oversee the extermination
of Hungarian Jews.
Beginning of deportation of Jews from
Hungary to Auschwitz.
The first Jews from Hungary arrive
at Auschwitz. Eichmann arrives to personally oversee and speed
up the extermination process.
It is estimated that 100,000 have been
gassed at Auschwitz. Between May 16 and May 31, the SS report
collecting 88 pounds of gold and white metal from the teeth
of those gassed. By the end of June, 381,661 persons, which
is half of the Jews in Hungary have arrived at Auschwitz.
Rosenberg orders operation
'Hay Action', the kidnapping of 40,000 Polish children aged
ten to fourteen for slave labour in Germany.
The Russians liberate Maidanek
Concentration Camp near Lublin, where 360,000 people perished.
Anne Frank and family arrested
by Gestapo in Amsterdam, then sent to Auschwitz. Anne and her
sister Margot are later sent to Bergen-Belsen where Anne dies
of typhus on March 15, 1945.
The last Jewish ghetto
in Poland, Lodz, is liquidated with 60,000 Jews sent to Auschwitz.
A revolt by Jewish slave
laborers at Auschwitz-Birkenau results in complete destruction
of Crematory IV.
Deportation of Jews from Hungary resumes
after a temporarily halt due to international political pressure
to stop Jewish persecutions.
Eichmann returns to Hungary.
The last train transport of Jews to
Auschwitz are gassed. These are 2,000 Jews from Theresienstad.
The gas chambers at Auschwitz are used
for the last time.
25,000 Jews are forced to walk over
100 miles in rain and snow from Budapest to the Austrian border,
followed by a second forced march of 50,000 persons, ending
at Mauthausen Concentration camp.
Himmler orders the destruction
of the crematories at Auschwitz.